But millions across Africa don’t have it. With your help, we can fix this! The lack of clean drinking water takes lives, suppresses Africa’s growth, and keeps kids out of school.
Apply your knowledge and make a difference. You have the idea, we have the resources to bring it to life. Together we can make clean drinking water affordable and reliable to all Africans.
How can you help? Read this brief and consider these types of solutions for inspiration:
How can we educate communities so they embrace clean water solutions?
How can we give communities long-term access to groundwater?
How can we improve access to clean water by improving sanitation?
How can we provide people simple water treatment solutions?
How can we turn available water into drinkable water through filtration?
How can we leverage the power of the sun to purify water?
Any other ways to address the main campaign topic?
Safe drinking water is essential to good health. However, in resource-poor settings, water often comes from unsafe sources and carries deadly pathogens. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.8 million people die each year from diarrheal diseases, many of which are attributed to unsafe water. Safe drinking water is one of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals—by 2015, the United Nations hopes to decrease the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 50 percent. SAFI filter aims at improving efficiency ,flexibility and has a dynamic design to reach households with the greatest need for clean, safe drinking water. SAFI is a swahili word meaning "clean" It's a collapsible filter that is designed to fit all water collecting objects and also it being detachable can be used on water sources such as taps and sinks among others. To increase access to clean water, SAFI team comprised of two interaction design students (Susan Oguya and Swatti Kashyap) with a background of entrepreneurship and industrial design teamed up to work and identify, adapt, and develop appropriate dynamic filter and business model to build a sustainable commercial market in household water treatment and storage for low-income consumers.
Clean Water 4 Africa
As Enactus Midlands State University and in partnership with Future waters Bulawayo we designed a machine that uses carbon filtration process to purify water. it costs US$850. It consists of a manual hand pump to reduce costs, aqua shield filter and granular activated carbon filter. We are looking for means to avail and increase production of such machines and probably modification of having the machine at a large scale and being powered by solar.
Water supply will see a 40% increase in demand in the coming decade and the topic of increasing the supply is at the heart of the issue. Agriculture uses 70% of the world's water and the water problem can be solved by disciplined agricultural techniques such as reduction of over irrigation, use of drip irrigation, sprinklers, fertilizers, Genetically Modified crops. Usage of better irrigation techniques will also boost the underground water levels. Along with these proper cold storage and transportation of agricultural produce is important as their loss should be seen as use of more water or more drop per crop. Other methods such as river linking, creating huge dams for water storage, treating sea water, bore wells are expensive and take a long time to implement.
Whatever the means (out of the varied means of getting water) employed in providing clean water and better sanitation in the African countries, the most important thing is education in ensuring the sustainability and maintenance of the structure. We propose an online educational community using mobile phones. This is imperative as a result of the population of mobile phones in the world, outnumbering the world’s population coupled with the positive and landmark achievements realized already in the use of mobile phones as a means of trade, agricultural market, payment of bills and what have you. We propose the use of a mobile app platform that works on both high end (smart phones) and low-end mobile phones. First there is need for physical installations in each community (especially in the rural areas as rural people tend to have higher believe in what they see or where they can easily go to and need to always see someone they can talk to) which will serve as information desk and help desk for each particular community. Then there is need for an initial public seminar (a three day seminar should be enough for each community) for everybody or at least a representative of each household. This is where the community members are registered with their mobile phone numbers and can download the mobile app, depending on their phone model. The community is further divided into groups for record purpose, maintenance task allocation purpose and for effective spread of information through words of mouth. Individuals can always go back to the physical installations later for any inquiry or any other help. Sanitation tips, general hygiene tips and tips on using the water and sanitation resources sustainably would then be sent to their mobile phones through SMS and voice messages (this does not require internet service). Also important updates and news from around the world and those pertaining to the local neighbouring communities can be received on their mobile phones. The program structures a way to make community members participate in construction and maintenance of the source of water through the groups. This way, the individuals feel a sense of responsibility towards protecting and using the resources sustainably. The app also involves a database that keeps the record of past achievement, analysis of future trend and possible future effects. Though clean water is very important for the health and sustainability of individuals. Rural dwellers are not willing to pay so they prefer getting water from open streams which are exposed to a lot of infections as they serve as source for animals and agriculture. A little amount of $10 can be charged per annum to keep the programme running (from call credit). Individuals who would love to volunteer more could and commercial activity could be charged a little above $10. Fixing this with the average number of people in each community in Africa, this money would be enough to cover for maintenance cost and running of the program.
Most local authorities in Africa are overwhelmed by improving water supply. Public Private Partnerships in water treatment plants will lift the burden on local authorities by assisting on supplying chemicals and rehabilitation of the plants. The major benefit of the partnership is to improve financial resources in water treatment.
Let’s teach the children about bacteria and its relationship with water quality and disease. They will educate their families and villages. Mobile phones are so prevalent in Africa that a mobile app is probably the best way to get this done. Several such apps exist that let people detect bacteria in their environments. Here is one developed for water in particular, WaterQuality by NCIT . There is another more advanced app developed by a University that detects toxins, proteins, bacteria and viruses: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kh7MUjIYuyw http://gadgets.ndtv.com/apps/news/smartphone-app-to-use-mobile-camera-to-detect-toxins-proteins-bacteria-and-viruses-371833 Now not all schools in Africa have wifi and most kids don’t have their own phone. Many poorer families have feature phones, not a smartphone. We suggest the education program provide each school with satellite wifi hotspot, and an iPad to teach the kids. The village chief will be given a communal smartphone for water safety, which he can access with the school’s wifi. With clean water the people will also gain access to the outside world, which will have follow-on benefits. They can even test other villages’ water to generate revenue! The same approach could be tried with leading women in the village who can be given smartphones and generate pocket change by testing water door-to-door or in collective wells and other catchments.
While we’d love to provide the most advanced totally pure water supply for Africa, maybe one approach is to make a significant difference first with a simpler, mechanical method using locally available materials. The earliest means of purifying water that I’ve read about were sand filters, dating back to 1804 in England.* Is it possible to teach people in Africa to build their own sand filters, using discarded soda bottles or barrels and sand? Here is a Youtube video showing how can be done with a 55 gallon barrel, fine sand, and pvc tube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KQNzhK9-mA See also: http://www.slowsandfilter.org/ *Wikiepedia offers more background on sand filters: John Gibb, installed an experimental filter, selling his unwanted surplus to the public. This method was refined in the following two decades by engineers working for private water companies, and it culminated in the first treated public water supply in the world, installed by engineer James Simpson for the Chelsea Waterworks Company in London in 1829.This installation provided filtered water for every resident of the area, and the network design was widely copied throughout the United Kingdom in the ensuing decades.
Water Sanitizing Drops point-of-use water disinfectant was first and foremost designed to disinfect contaminated and polluted human drinking water. The Sanitizing Drops contains minute traces of silver that are safe for humans, but deadly to disease causing organisms such as fungi, parasites, protozoa and certain viruses. The Copper, Silver and Zinc destroy more than 99.9% of all bacteria present in your drinking water. SABS tests show that 3 drops per litre makes even the most infected water safe to drink within 30 – 60 minutes. After water is treated, it will remain safe for 24 months in storage. Costs are less than R60 a bottle and has the ability to reach the masses as well as easy to distribute throughout Africa
Basic concept: What is distillation? The action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling Therma Energy:Form of heating by employing electric heating or fuel burning or solar heating Solar Energy: Solar radiation is a form of renewable energy that is abundant and accessible in many areas in the world.Sunlight with wavelengths of 315-400 nanometers (nm) on the ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum is most effective at destroying bacteria. Distiller:The design structure that uses solar energy and thermal energy to purify polluted water or bad water to clean drinkable water. Design:kettle form,tank form,cycliner form etc Prototype:A large tank with a sliding top or concave curve as top. Heating :Electric heater or wood burning or solar heat or boiling ring heater 1. Problem statement: Lack of good drinking water in Africa,high cost of processes involved in producing good drinking water,cost of using chemicals like chlorine for treatment of water 2. Solution: Solar thermal water distiller( STWD) is a unique solution for obtaining clean drinkable water in Africa.Its a natural process involved .A large tank containing contaminated water is covered with transparent glass that collects distilled water and sterilized by solar ultra violet rays from the sun. The purpose of the sliding covering or concave curve top is to collect the distilled water from the contaminated tank to the distilled tank. In Africa today,the cost of producing clean drinkable is high .Chemicals treated water for drinking is having chemicals taste in it while drinking.The problem of bore hole water which is not fit for drinking.All these problems are taken care by Solar Thermal Water distiller. Implementing Solar Thermal Water Distiller can be in two ways: 1.Large Scale production:for Africa communities,town and villages 2.Smale Scale:Home use,office and small coffee shops etc. 2. Benefits: One major advantage of Solar thermal Water distiller is that its water is the purest as spring water and naturally healthier to other form of drinking water.Its free from germs and bacteria which are one of Africa major problem with drinking water. It has no particular location of usage in Africa.It can be use in any part of Africa as both heating and sun energy is used as the basic idea of this project. Its at development stage as a new technique in producing clean drinkable water using Solar Therma Water Distiller. The technology involved is conservation of energy.As the law of conversation of energy state that energy is neither destroy nor create but transform from one form of energy to the other.
The efficacy of Moringa Olefeira in water treatment (mainly disinfection and removal of turbidity) is well documented. However, pilots of its practical application have been limited to household uses. My idea is to establish a research unit within a University or a Water Treatment Plant or Uganda Industrial Research Institute, that will seek to find solutions to the following: 1. Technical feasibility of use of Moringa Oleifeira in Commercial Water Treatment 2. Comparative cost benefit analyses of Moringa Olefeira // Alum and Chlorine taking into considerations health and safety considerations (for example, some forms of chlorine are known to be carcinogenic 3. Commercial viability of using Moringa Olefeira in Large scale water treatment, taking into consideration - demand vs supply - supply chains - route to market/lead time - initial capital investment required for processing moringa powder - useful byproducts which might reduce the net cost of producing a unit of moringa powder 4. Real life pilots of use of Moringa in a commercial treatment plant The project should take about 2 years to complete.
Over 90% of waste water is water. if this is treated to a level that it can be used back in the same households they came from for portable usage, Water problems will be considerably reduced. Therefore there is need to develop a cost effective treatment system that can treat the waste water, mostly grey to that level that it can be used without affecting the lives of the users. These system should use local materials such as soil, crushed ceramics, charcoal, sand among others, which do not require a lot of money to acquire.
Diarrhea and Cholera are the most Public Health problems related to Sanitation in Mwanza causing hundreds of death among children. Disease statistics indicates that 60-80% of the diseases requiring hospital attendance are those related to poor Sanitation. The Overall picture from the mapping survey indicates that most schools are Characterized by Non-Existent or insufficient water Supply, Sanitation and Hand Washing facilities; and in some other cases, facilities do exist but many are broken, unclean or unsafe. Without Water and Sanitation facilities, hygiene promotion and education in Schools is difficult and has minimal Impact. School-WASH Provides expertise and Interventions aimed at saving lives and reducing illness by improving access to healthy and safe water, adequate Sanitation and Improved Hygiene. This program works on long-term Prevention and control measures for improving health, reducing Poverty and improving Socio-Economic development as well responding to emergencies and out break of life threatening illness. Objectives of School WASH project: i/ To Influence communities to participate in planning, construction, use and maintenance of user friendly water, sanitation and hygiene facilities for school and communities ii/ To build human resources capacity for improved School Water, sanitation and hygiene service delivery which is gender friendly and accessible. Iii/ To provide conducive, accessible and inclusive environment for school children with special needs. Iv/ To improve hygiene practices among school children, their families and communities. v/ To improve water, sanitation and hygiene facilities for better health and well being for School and children Theory Of Change: Children are change agents. Schools are important links to reaching individual families families and communities. Children pass on their knowledge of hygiene behavior practice from schools to their families and thus influence the community. Hygiene Behavior is a function of many factors namely Availability of water supply, hygiene facilities, altitude and appropriate Knowledge. Knowledge on Hygiene is imparted to school children through existing school curriculum and health education provided by local health professionals. Behavior of school children may Not be possible to change if enabling factors such as water supply, and other elements of hygiene are inadequate or lacking.
Problem: Water pollution is a major challenge throughout the world. The challenge of water in Africa is linked to health, power, energy and the economy. The purification of water might help minimize the above mentioned challenges, giving us a second chance to build a better economy. Few people in the continent have little of no access to purified water and thus rely on the wells and dams for freshwater for domestic use. The use of un-purified water exposes people to a lot of health issues, as for farmers, they experience challenges associated with the growth and production of their crops. Thus materials for massive treatment are required in this case for everyone to have access to clean and safe water. Solution: Membranes and environmentally friendly chemicals may be used to purify water, targeting all contaminants in water such as microorganisms, organic pollutants and inorganic pollutants. The materials: Ag/TiO2/MCM-41  and PES/Ag/TiO2/MCM-41  may be used for water purification. Material  is a powder and thus will be deposited in ground water for the adsorption and removal of all contaminants including toxic microorganisms, organic pollutants (dyes, pesticides etc.) and inorganic pollutants (heavy metals, of interest). Material 2 is a membrane and will be used for the purification of water before released to the receiving watercourses from the industries and mines. All these materials incorporate the energy of the sun for water purification, through titanium dioxide for photocatalysis. The selected materials are of interest since they are environmentally friendly, commercially available, hydrothermally and mechanically stable, cheap, have anti-fouling and anti-microbial activities, and stable against corrosion. The future of pure, clean and safe water for all lies with these materials. Africans working together for a better tomorrow for Africa. Targeted pollutants: organic, inorganic and toxic microorganisms Application 1: The first material will be deposited in ground water (wells, ponds, dams etc.). Since we know that other areas only rely on these points for fresh water..., upon sedimentation it will thereafter adsorb and remove contaminants in water (This is a good idea if the catalyst is not to be recovered). Considering the fact of recovering the catalyst, big tanks which have pipes connected to the dams and ponds will be introduced..and the materials will be deposited in the tank and upon emptying of the tank the catalyst may be recovered. to ensure maximum purification, the second material will be placed at the taps to filter remaining contaminants. Application 2: The second material is targeted for application in the main sources of pollution (industries, mines etc). They may be applied independently for the filtration of water to remove pollutants before release to the receiving watercources, or we may have a system where there water first passes through a big tank which contains material 1 (for degradation of dyes since it requires time, maybe 12 hours) then pass through material 2 (membrane) which will filter any remaining carcinogenic contaminants. Both materials are suitable for commercial use, thus massive purification
We propose a circulation shower that saves 90% on water and energy. Families can shower endlessly with only a bucket of water. Our idea is to make an Africa-proof version of the circulation shower - a proven concept. This idea has already been deployed in the Netherlands and is ready to be deployed quickly on a large scale. By making circulation showers available to all families, schools and other public institutions, children can go to school clean, drinking water and groundwater will be conserved and only very little waste water is produced. Our new shower filters and purifies the water 30 times per minute. It is engineered with industrial components and stainless steel guaranteeing a long lifetime: Suitable for harsh environments. Lasts 20 years, maintenance-free. Extremely affordable: basic systems can be engineered for a few hundred dollars. Suitable for community usage. The circulation shower can be fully powered by solar panels and requires only a bucket of water per session, making it a fully functional stand-alone sanitation system. So how do we keep it clean over the long lifespan? We believe that a self-cleansing system should be in place, and that any maintenance should be extremely low-tech and layman proof. We have the following solutions in place: - To stop blood, skin cells, mud and the like: we have an extremely simple and cheap membrane, which prevents these elements from entering the system. - The membrane will never stop soap and urine getting IN to the system, but CAN force it out after every shower. This because the piping and pump are fully drained by gravity. Exiting the system, the water will purge the membrane by default, leaving it clean for the next person. - The inner workings (pipe, pump and shower head) can be easily rinsed with eco-friendly detergents. Lemon juice with water cycling for a while should do most of the jobs. - The pipes can be nano-coated to prevent the build-up of any unwanted substance over time. - The membrane is detachable from the pipe with a simple magnet. So the part that does most of the filtering can be either cheaply replaced or soaked in eco-friendly detergent for a night. An animation of the existing and proven concept can be viewed here: http://youtu.be/pNgMhooKGuU Africa needs this. Let's make it happen.
Lake Victoria is the largest fresh water source in the Africa. In the western part of Kenya, it is also the largest free water source and also in the whole of Kenya. Along its shores is majorly occupied by fishermen, which means it is not only a water source but also a main source of income to thousands of people in Kenya. However, there lies a very big risk and exists a series of water borne diseases in this region. There is a very high rate of pollution into this lake; 1. There is no system for waste and sewage. This is caused by one major problem of lack of toilets in most of the parts of the Western Kenya. As a result, the human call for nature is done in the bushes and open places. This also happens in some of the regions where the rivers that channel water into the lake pass. This aspect has largely been contributed to by the fact that there is a very high level of illiteracy this region and the mixture of people from different regions including Uganda and Tanzania who move into these regions looking for sources of income. 2. There is a very big lack of knowledge about waste disposal, management and reuse. As a result there exists a problem of poor waste disposal which finally through different forms find their ways into the lake contributing to a very high rate of pollution. Through the above two different forms of pollution, when there is rain, all these human wastes and solid wastes find their ways back into the lake polluting the water that is used by millions of habitants around the Lake Victoria. 3. The other great problem that exists here and affects a very high percentage of purity of the lake although is being ignored is burying bodies of the dead in tombs whose insides are not cemented. During decomposition and rainy seasons, all the bacteria pollute the underground water which finds its way into the lakes finally polluting the water largely. All these with all the biodegradable wastes that goes into the lake creates an oxygen depleting effect that contributes to having less oxygen in the water each day. This with other chemical pollution has also contributed to the death of many fish in the lake hence making the water unsafe. This water furthermore is used by the residents untreated. 4. A very common dangerous tradition especially amongst the fishermen here is responding to the call of nature in the water especially when they are fishing. This happens in large volumes and so frequently and all the time since people do fishing 24 hours of a day. This pollutes the lake water so much 5. A very common culture here is people bathing and doing laundry inside the lake. This act does not only pollute the water but also has led to spread of diseases greatly. Given this need and real necessity for a solution to this environment, my idea is to come up with four related initiatives that will educate, prevent and improve knowledge, purity of water and the sanitation. 1. Given the high rate of illiteracy in this region, BOILING WATER FOR DRINKING AND DOMESTIC USE is a very economic, literacy-unnecessary and easy method that we can mobilize and educate the communities to adopt towards creating a healthy future. My initiative will organize home-to-home program teaching people this method that kills water germs at a temperature of around 70°C. Indeed, with wood fuel, this requires less than 10 minutes to boil. Given the availability and traditional use of wood fuel, what my initiative will stress on is the sanitation of the homesteads. With this method, we do not need to spend even a single penny to make water healthy for drinking. With no chemicals added, I believe it is the best method to purify water. 2. To prevent widespread of pollution and improve the general sanitation of this region that hosts more than 30 million residents and supports one of densest and poorest rural populations in the world (Global International Waters Assessment,2006), my initiative is to seek support to build toilets in this region where very few exist. This is meant to be done systematically one region after another beginning with the Bondo District in Kenya. To provide and improve sustainability and help our population save on costs, we are looking forward to building special mechanized toilets connected to a biodigestor between each three to five households. This is further meant to save on wood fuel, charcoal and paraffin that in one way or another always have great financial effects to the family or environmental effects to the lake and the future of the world. With this furthermore, the families are not going to struggle boiling the water for drinking and household use. The built toilets are also meant to serve as bathrooms to totally avoid the issue of bathing and doing laundry inside the lake. 3. To avoid the rapid pollution and also improve on the sanitation of our fishermen, my initiative will improvise a portable small toilet which uses ash and saw dust to kill the micro bacteria and remove the smell to be carried while going fishing and be used instead of the water. 4. My initiative, with support from EARTH University, Costa Rica is will also educate the communities on how to safely dispose, recycle and reuse solid wastes without letting them pollute our waters and environment. This will not only help reduce pollution but also help create sources of income to the residents Video source Youtub https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYTEI_Wd13k&feature=player_detailpage