But millions across Africa don’t have it. With your help, we can fix this! The lack of clean drinking water takes lives, suppresses Africa’s growth, and keeps kids out of school.
Apply your knowledge and make a difference. You have the idea, we have the resources to bring it to life. Together we can make clean drinking water affordable and reliable to all Africans.
How can you help? Read this brief and consider these types of solutions for inspiration:
How can we educate communities so they embrace clean water solutions?
How can we give communities long-term access to groundwater?
How can we improve access to clean water by improving sanitation?
How can we provide people simple water treatment solutions?
How can we turn available water into drinkable water through filtration?
How can we leverage the power of the sun to purify water?
Any other ways to address the main campaign topic?
Safe drinking water is essential to good health. However, in resource-poor settings, water often comes from unsafe sources and carries deadly pathogens. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.8 million people die each year from diarrheal diseases, many of which are attributed to unsafe water. Safe drinking water is one of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals—by 2015, the United Nations hopes to decrease the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 50 percent. SAFI filter aims at improving efficiency ,flexibility and has a dynamic design to reach households with the greatest need for clean, safe drinking water. SAFI is a swahili word meaning "clean" It's a collapsible filter that is designed to fit all water collecting objects and also it being detachable can be used on water sources such as taps and sinks among others. To increase access to clean water, SAFI team comprised of two interaction design students (Susan Oguya and Swatti Kashyap) with a background of entrepreneurship and industrial design teamed up to work and identify, adapt, and develop appropriate dynamic filter and business model to build a sustainable commercial market in household water treatment and storage for low-income consumers.
Clean Water 4 Africa
As Enactus Midlands State University and in partnership with Future waters Bulawayo we designed a machine that uses carbon filtration process to purify water. it costs US$850. It consists of a manual hand pump to reduce costs, aqua shield filter and granular activated carbon filter. We are looking for means to avail and increase production of such machines and probably modification of having the machine at a large scale and being powered by solar.
Water supply will see a 40% increase in demand in the coming decade and the topic of increasing the supply is at the heart of the issue. Agriculture uses 70% of the world's water and the water problem can be solved by disciplined agricultural techniques such as reduction of over irrigation, use of drip irrigation, sprinklers, fertilizers, Genetically Modified crops. Usage of better irrigation techniques will also boost the underground water levels. Along with these proper cold storage and transportation of agricultural produce is important as their loss should be seen as use of more water or more drop per crop. Other methods such as river linking, creating huge dams for water storage, treating sea water, bore wells are expensive and take a long time to implement.
Whatever the means (out of the varied means of getting water) employed in providing clean water and better sanitation in the African countries, the most important thing is education in ensuring the sustainability and maintenance of the structure. We propose an online educational community using mobile phones. This is imperative as a result of the population of mobile phones in the world, outnumbering the world’s population coupled with the positive and landmark achievements realized already in the use of mobile phones as a means of trade, agricultural market, payment of bills and what have you. We propose the use of a mobile app platform that works on both high end (smart phones) and low-end mobile phones. First there is need for physical installations in each community (especially in the rural areas as rural people tend to have higher believe in what they see or where they can easily go to and need to always see someone they can talk to) which will serve as information desk and help desk for each particular community. Then there is need for an initial public seminar (a three day seminar should be enough for each community) for everybody or at least a representative of each household. This is where the community members are registered with their mobile phone numbers and can download the mobile app, depending on their phone model. The community is further divided into groups for record purpose, maintenance task allocation purpose and for effective spread of information through words of mouth. Individuals can always go back to the physical installations later for any inquiry or any other help. Sanitation tips, general hygiene tips and tips on using the water and sanitation resources sustainably would then be sent to their mobile phones through SMS and voice messages (this does not require internet service). Also important updates and news from around the world and those pertaining to the local neighbouring communities can be received on their mobile phones. The program structures a way to make community members participate in construction and maintenance of the source of water through the groups. This way, the individuals feel a sense of responsibility towards protecting and using the resources sustainably. The app also involves a database that keeps the record of past achievement, analysis of future trend and possible future effects. Though clean water is very important for the health and sustainability of individuals. Rural dwellers are not willing to pay so they prefer getting water from open streams which are exposed to a lot of infections as they serve as source for animals and agriculture. A little amount of $10 can be charged per annum to keep the programme running (from call credit). Individuals who would love to volunteer more could and commercial activity could be charged a little above $10. Fixing this with the average number of people in each community in Africa, this money would be enough to cover for maintenance cost and running of the program.
Most local authorities in Africa are overwhelmed by improving water supply. Public Private Partnerships in water treatment plants will lift the burden on local authorities by assisting on supplying chemicals and rehabilitation of the plants. The major benefit of the partnership is to improve financial resources in water treatment.
Let’s teach the children about bacteria and its relationship with water quality and disease. They will educate their families and villages. Mobile phones are so prevalent in Africa that a mobile app is probably the best way to get this done. Several such apps exist that let people detect bacteria in their environments. Here is one developed for water in particular, WaterQuality by NCIT . There is another more advanced app developed by a University that detects toxins, proteins, bacteria and viruses: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kh7MUjIYuyw http://gadgets.ndtv.com/apps/news/smartphone-app-to-use-mobile-camera-to-detect-toxins-proteins-bacteria-and-viruses-371833 Now not all schools in Africa have wifi and most kids don’t have their own phone. Many poorer families have feature phones, not a smartphone. We suggest the education program provide each school with satellite wifi hotspot, and an iPad to teach the kids. The village chief will be given a communal smartphone for water safety, which he can access with the school’s wifi. With clean water the people will also gain access to the outside world, which will have follow-on benefits. They can even test other villages’ water to generate revenue! The same approach could be tried with leading women in the village who can be given smartphones and generate pocket change by testing water door-to-door or in collective wells and other catchments.
While we’d love to provide the most advanced totally pure water supply for Africa, maybe one approach is to make a significant difference first with a simpler, mechanical method using locally available materials. The earliest means of purifying water that I’ve read about were sand filters, dating back to 1804 in England.* Is it possible to teach people in Africa to build their own sand filters, using discarded soda bottles or barrels and sand? Here is a Youtube video showing how can be done with a 55 gallon barrel, fine sand, and pvc tube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KQNzhK9-mA See also: http://www.slowsandfilter.org/ *Wikiepedia offers more background on sand filters: John Gibb, installed an experimental filter, selling his unwanted surplus to the public. This method was refined in the following two decades by engineers working for private water companies, and it culminated in the first treated public water supply in the world, installed by engineer James Simpson for the Chelsea Waterworks Company in London in 1829.This installation provided filtered water for every resident of the area, and the network design was widely copied throughout the United Kingdom in the ensuing decades.
Water Sanitizing Drops point-of-use water disinfectant was first and foremost designed to disinfect contaminated and polluted human drinking water. The Sanitizing Drops contains minute traces of silver that are safe for humans, but deadly to disease causing organisms such as fungi, parasites, protozoa and certain viruses. The Copper, Silver and Zinc destroy more than 99.9% of all bacteria present in your drinking water. SABS tests show that 3 drops per litre makes even the most infected water safe to drink within 30 – 60 minutes. After water is treated, it will remain safe for 24 months in storage. Costs are less than R60 a bottle and has the ability to reach the masses as well as easy to distribute throughout Africa
Basic concept: What is distillation? The action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling Therma Energy:Form of heating by employing electric heating or fuel burning or solar heating Solar Energy: Solar radiation is a form of renewable energy that is abundant and accessible in many areas in the world.Sunlight with wavelengths of 315-400 nanometers (nm) on the ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum is most effective at destroying bacteria. Distiller:The design structure that uses solar energy and thermal energy to purify polluted water or bad water to clean drinkable water. Design:kettle form,tank form,cycliner form etc Prototype:A large tank with a sliding top or concave curve as top. Heating :Electric heater or wood burning or solar heat or boiling ring heater 1. Problem statement: Lack of good drinking water in Africa,high cost of processes involved in producing good drinking water,cost of using chemicals like chlorine for treatment of water 2. Solution: Solar thermal water distiller( STWD) is a unique solution for obtaining clean drinkable water in Africa.Its a natural process involved .A large tank containing contaminated water is covered with transparent glass that collects distilled water and sterilized by solar ultra violet rays from the sun. The purpose of the sliding covering or concave curve top is to collect the distilled water from the contaminated tank to the distilled tank. In Africa today,the cost of producing clean drinkable is high .Chemicals treated water for drinking is having chemicals taste in it while drinking.The problem of bore hole water which is not fit for drinking.All these problems are taken care by Solar Thermal Water distiller. Implementing Solar Thermal Water Distiller can be in two ways: 1.Large Scale production:for Africa communities,town and villages 2.Smale Scale:Home use,office and small coffee shops etc. 2. Benefits: One major advantage of Solar thermal Water distiller is that its water is the purest as spring water and naturally healthier to other form of drinking water.Its free from germs and bacteria which are one of Africa major problem with drinking water. It has no particular location of usage in Africa.It can be use in any part of Africa as both heating and sun energy is used as the basic idea of this project. Its at development stage as a new technique in producing clean drinkable water using Solar Therma Water Distiller. The technology involved is conservation of energy.As the law of conversation of energy state that energy is neither destroy nor create but transform from one form of energy to the other.
The efficacy of Moringa Olefeira in water treatment (mainly disinfection and removal of turbidity) is well documented. However, pilots of its practical application have been limited to household uses. My idea is to establish a research unit within a University or a Water Treatment Plant or Uganda Industrial Research Institute, that will seek to find solutions to the following: 1. Technical feasibility of use of Moringa Oleifeira in Commercial Water Treatment 2. Comparative cost benefit analyses of Moringa Olefeira // Alum and Chlorine taking into considerations health and safety considerations (for example, some forms of chlorine are known to be carcinogenic 3. Commercial viability of using Moringa Olefeira in Large scale water treatment, taking into consideration - demand vs supply - supply chains - route to market/lead time - initial capital investment required for processing moringa powder - useful byproducts which might reduce the net cost of producing a unit of moringa powder 4. Real life pilots of use of Moringa in a commercial treatment plant The project should take about 2 years to complete.
Over 90% of waste water is water. if this is treated to a level that it can be used back in the same households they came from for portable usage, Water problems will be considerably reduced. Therefore there is need to develop a cost effective treatment system that can treat the waste water, mostly grey to that level that it can be used without affecting the lives of the users. These system should use local materials such as soil, crushed ceramics, charcoal, sand among others, which do not require a lot of money to acquire.
Clean water is health and the overall well-being of the world in General and Africans in particular. I believe low cost filtration systems need to be developed with a mix of germ/bug killing capability and the power to get rid of chemical contaminants like lead etc. The system is bespoken to free water of microbic contaminants, chemical contaminants or both betting on the user’s wants. My filter has Silver nanoparticles composed of silver ions which kill any virus you can think of. It also eliminates toxic compounds like arsenic, lead, and iron by unleashing them. The Nano particles are embedded in aluminium and Chitosan made cage. The cage blocks macroscale water contaminants in addition and at the time protects the nanoparticles from sediments that might otherwise accumulate on their surfaces, thereby preventing them from unleashing microbe-zapping ions. The “cage” technique may be used with different nanoparticles to focus on contaminants like mercury. Nonetheless, I’ve not tried using different Nanoparticle. HOW IT WORKS; You have to develop a filter based on an aluminium composite, embedded with coated silver nanoparticles. As water flows through the filter, the nanoparticles are oxidised and release ions, which kill viruses and bacteria, and neutralise toxic chemicals such as lead and arsenic. I have filters already designed. I used Silver nanoparticles as it is widely known in neutralizing germs, pesticides, mercury (some argue that is doesn’t), cadmium, lead, fluoride and arsenic. I’ve tested it on water gotten from our village well. Before the test, I took the water for a lab test and some protozoa and chemicals like arsenic, lead, Mercury and iron were present. Normally, the water has no chemical in it so I added them because we don’t experience chemicals pollution here. After a test, I took it to a lab to check for impurities and they found none. NOTE: Silver nanoparticles when coated does not leach into the water and does not give any taste, colour and odour. 1 litre of water spent on making silver nanoparticles gives 500 litres of clean water. In tests, a 50-gram coated Silver Nano particles filtered 1500 litres of water without needing reactivation, so I estimate that a 120g-filter that costs just $2 would provide safe drinking water for a family of five for one year. According to Thalappil Pradeep (a professor in the Department of Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras) It is also possible to tune the chemistry of any of these materials so they can attack a wide spectrum of contaminants (i.e. other several nanocomposites can be embedded too) but I’ve not tried to tune the chemistry of Nano Silver. I have run small-scale field trials on silver nano particles and found it working and the water content safe for drinking. Many professors like Thalappil Pradeep have written on the promise Nanotechnologies/particles holds with regards to affordable and safe drinking water. Reference; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America http://www.pnas.org/content/110/21/8459.abstract dartmouth.edu http://www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/toxic-metals/more-metals/silver-faq.html
I once thought boiling water can't guarantee clean water due to decrease in atmospheric pressure and temperature. 1 month ago, I learn on this platform that boiling water above 70°C for at least five minutes at any altitude within Africa will sterilize water to an acceptable level. A further research cleared my doubts and confirms what "Straut" clarified me on. According to Wilderness Medical Society, water temperatures above 160° F (70° C) kill all pathogens, virus etc within 30 minutes and above 185° F (85° C) within a few minutes. So in the time it takes for the water to reach the boiling point (212° F or 100° C) from 160° F (70° C), all pathogens will be killed, even at high altitude. What I learnt really inspire me to do something new. I got an idea to manufacture boiling tanks of different sizes depending on the customer budget. I draw a Prototype and sent to a Chinese manufacturer (Picture left) I found on Alibaba.com. Within 7 days, they manufactured 12 tanks of different shapes and sizes I placed 1 on our roof top (Picture left). Note: 20 litres to 100 litres tank are dual tank. 120 to 500 litres tank uses the heat from Sunlight to purify itself. IS MY IDEA DIFFERENT? I can say yes because the tank is dual. You can choose to remove the wire cord if you want to boil water with a stove or charcoal. You can choose to plug the wire cord if you intend to boil water with electricity. It has two spaces close to each other. One is meant for the wire cord while the other is meant to take water from the tank. This is to make the water as safe as possible because although the water is clean, the bucket or cup you might use to draw water by dipping it into the tank might not be clean. There might be some dirt at the bottom of the cup/bucket so it’s safe to draw water from the tap than dipping it inside the tank. You can also use heat from the sun to purify it. (This is mainly for larger tanks). Anybody with dual tank? Or have seen Dual tank in the market? I searched for it but couldn’t find it at some popular markets around here which made me to go with my idea. Well, the “dual” sell for itself as I don’t have any left except the one I’m using although some still owe me. Also, some do inquire when the next order will arrive. An average African believes that as soon as the water vapour escaped the kettle/pot with noise/noises, all the protozoa, virus etc are dead; therefore the water is now fit for drinking. Because of this, I packaged each Tank with a guide on how to boil water including some pictorial explanation on how to treat chemical contaminated water that can’t be treated with boiling. Few information I learnt which help me in writing the guide is found here; http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/manual/water.shtml . The guide also has sanitation and filtration measures such as bio-sands, burying human waste 8 inches deep and at least 200 feet away from natural waters to prevent Protozoa like Cryptosporidium, Giardia intestinalis, Bacteria like Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli and Viruses like enterovirus, hepatitis A, norovirus, rotavirus. Also practicing good personal hygiene like Washing hands before handling food, eating, and after using the toilet. I believe they know that of washing of hands but it’s cool to keep remembering them. The guide also has detail explanation how many minutes each quantity of water needs to get clean. Most African hardly read booklets attached to a product after purchase. Let’s be sincere, how many of us have read everything written on a product label before or after we purchased the product? I hardly read anyway. Because of this, I packaged the tanks in such a way that, one must see “THE GUIDE TITLE” before removing the tank pack. How will you feel if you read a booklet tagged “You don’t how to boil water clean......reasons inside!” Some said they get mad at it because boiling of water is what they know how to do very well. Some expressed how curious they were. But as they read through the guide, they get to understand they don’t actually know it all. The price of each tank varies and it depends on the size of the tank. Nonetheless, a tank as big as mine on the roof top is 3,000 Naira which is equivalent to $17 with 2 years guarantee. Additional note: The basic thing here is the guide. The tank does not guarantee clean water when used without proper boiling of water. The tank is only invented to give users 2-3 options to boil water. This to reduce excuses of not boiling water as some may not boil their water because they run out of gas, kerosene or may experience power failure. The guide is in 4 languages; English, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo. This is to help people understand the guide content in the language they understand. I believe there are hundreds of languages all over Africa; I’m open to more hands that will help break more language barriers. I made some pictures of the viruses’ etc look scary so that subconsciously, they will know how real these contaminants are as it is difficult to believe when not seen with the naked eye. I’m currently sourcing for some African manufacturers to produce the same tank at a lower price to help reduce the price, Transport and logistics......If that work out, I will drop the Chinese manufacturers. I’ve also sent proposals to few NGO’s. Most of them haven’t respond yet while some said they will contact me early next year. For now, I’m currently sharing the guide to villages. About 15,000 copies have been shared so far with the help of some travellers and it cost me ($15) for printing. There were no charges impose on me by the travellers. It’s just simple “Help me share these to your villagers,” etc. About 8 tanks of 50 litres each have been given out so far for free, it cost me 4,000 naira ($22). About 27 tanks have been sold.
Diarrhea and Cholera are the most Public Health problems related to Sanitation in Mwanza causing hundreds of death among children. Disease statistics indicates that 60-80% of the diseases requiring hospital attendance are those related to poor Sanitation. The Overall picture from the mapping survey indicates that most schools are Characterized by Non-Existent or insufficient water Supply, Sanitation and Hand Washing facilities; and in some other cases, facilities do exist but many are broken, unclean or unsafe. Without Water and Sanitation facilities, hygiene promotion and education in Schools is difficult and has minimal Impact. School-WASH Provides expertise and Interventions aimed at saving lives and reducing illness by improving access to healthy and safe water, adequate Sanitation and Improved Hygiene. This program works on long-term Prevention and control measures for improving health, reducing Poverty and improving Socio-Economic development as well responding to emergencies and out break of life threatening illness. Objectives of School WASH project: i/ To Influence communities to participate in planning, construction, use and maintenance of user friendly water, sanitation and hygiene facilities for school and communities ii/ To build human resources capacity for improved School Water, sanitation and hygiene service delivery which is gender friendly and accessible. Iii/ To provide conducive, accessible and inclusive environment for school children with special needs. Iv/ To improve hygiene practices among school children, their families and communities. v/ To improve water, sanitation and hygiene facilities for better health and well being for School and children Theory Of Change: Children are change agents. Schools are important links to reaching individual families families and communities. Children pass on their knowledge of hygiene behavior practice from schools to their families and thus influence the community. Hygiene Behavior is a function of many factors namely Availability of water supply, hygiene facilities, altitude and appropriate Knowledge. Knowledge on Hygiene is imparted to school children through existing school curriculum and health education provided by local health professionals. Behavior of school children may Not be possible to change if enabling factors such as water supply, and other elements of hygiene are inadequate or lacking.
Problem: Water pollution is a major challenge throughout the world. The challenge of water in Africa is linked to health, power, energy and the economy. The purification of water might help minimize the above mentioned challenges, giving us a second chance to build a better economy. Few people in the continent have little of no access to purified water and thus rely on the wells and dams for freshwater for domestic use. The use of un-purified water exposes people to a lot of health issues, as for farmers, they experience challenges associated with the growth and production of their crops. Thus materials for massive treatment are required in this case for everyone to have access to clean and safe water. Solution: Membranes and environmentally friendly chemicals may be used to purify water, targeting all contaminants in water such as microorganisms, organic pollutants and inorganic pollutants. The materials: Ag/TiO2/MCM-41  and PES/Ag/TiO2/MCM-41  may be used for water purification. Material  is a powder and thus will be deposited in ground water for the adsorption and removal of all contaminants including toxic microorganisms, organic pollutants (dyes, pesticides etc.) and inorganic pollutants (heavy metals, of interest). Material 2 is a membrane and will be used for the purification of water before released to the receiving watercourses from the industries and mines. All these materials incorporate the energy of the sun for water purification, through titanium dioxide for photocatalysis. The selected materials are of interest since they are environmentally friendly, commercially available, hydrothermally and mechanically stable, cheap, have anti-fouling and anti-microbial activities, and stable against corrosion. The future of pure, clean and safe water for all lies with these materials. Africans working together for a better tomorrow for Africa. Targeted pollutants: organic, inorganic and toxic microorganisms Application 1: The first material will be deposited in ground water (wells, ponds, dams etc.). Since we know that other areas only rely on these points for fresh water..., upon sedimentation it will thereafter adsorb and remove contaminants in water (This is a good idea if the catalyst is not to be recovered). Considering the fact of recovering the catalyst, big tanks which have pipes connected to the dams and ponds will be introduced..and the materials will be deposited in the tank and upon emptying of the tank the catalyst may be recovered. to ensure maximum purification, the second material will be placed at the taps to filter remaining contaminants. Application 2: The second material is targeted for application in the main sources of pollution (industries, mines etc). They may be applied independently for the filtration of water to remove pollutants before release to the receiving watercources, or we may have a system where there water first passes through a big tank which contains material 1 (for degradation of dyes since it requires time, maybe 12 hours) then pass through material 2 (membrane) which will filter any remaining carcinogenic contaminants. Both materials are suitable for commercial use, thus massive purification