Water is one of the essential compounds for life and a scarce resource in the same measure. It’s said that this essential commodity occupies almost 75% of the earth’s surface but it’s quite ironical that with this kind of abundance water would still be referred to with an adjective like scarce or even the word drought should exist. Ironical or not, there is no sufficient fresh and clean water for consumption. Most of the water accessible to mankind has been polluted and become unfit for consumption. Besides pollution other factors exacerbating the situation are the cutting down of water catchment areas such as forests and reclamation of water bodies in order to put up settlements.
Given these conditions, there is an increased rate of desertification and climatic changes affecting people’s lives directly. Given this trend of diminishing water resources and the presence of unfit water for consumption, there is need for drastic measures to be taken to either reverse the trend or at least arrest the situation. In this regard, underground water and rain water can be purified in the manner as explained below from the given diagram;
The diagram shows a process of water collection and purification from both roof tops and the well. The well is dug near the house for easy water collection and to minimize the pipes needed to construct a channel the water towards the overhead tank. The overhead tank, meant for purification is placed on a stand 6 meters from the ground at a place where both rain water from the roof and well water can be accessed. During pumping of the water, the well water moves into the purification tank via the plastic pipes (normally use of plastic pipes to prevent contamination of water from metallic pipes). At the same time, during the rainy season, water is directed into this tank via gutters.
Once in the overhead tank, the unfit water for consumption is mixed with chlorine, the process known as chlorination and left for 20 minutes before the tap is opened to allow water into the storage .At the outlet of the storage tank is a tap fitted with a clean piece of cloth improvised as a filter to remove any soil particles. The water can then be used for domestic consumption.
NOTE: This process is applicable in both rural and urban areas, if used, it can reduce the chances of water born diseases and minimize the lose of rain water.