DESIGN AND OF A SOLAR/WIND HYBRIDIZED WATER PASTEURIZER WITH BATTERY STORAGE.
Author :Marshall T Chibika
I propose a solar/wind hybridized pasteurizer for drinking water especially in the remote and undeveloped areas were access purified and tapped water is not available.
Water quality and human health have been closely linked throughout history. Research has shown that faecal-borne bacteria, viruses, and protozoan’s are responsible for most water-borne diseases, and this has led to the need to develop sanitation and water treatment practices which provided people with a safe water supply.
In developing countries, the burden of disease caused by contaminated water and a lack of sanitation continues to increase, particularly among young children. Diarrhoea is an example of a disease caused by microbes, most often from contaminated water. According to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) diarrhoea is the most common childhood disease in developing countries. Dehydration resulting from diarrhoea is the leading cause of death in children under the age of five, annually killing an estimated five million children. Diarrhoea is also the most common cause of child malnutrition, which can lead to death or permanently impaired mental and physical development.
Pasteurization is the process of disinfecting food or liquids by heat or radiation. Disinfection means the destruction of disease-causing microorganisms. Heating water to 65º C (149º F) will kill all germs, viruses, and parasites which eliminates the need for boiling the water to 100 º C. Boiling has a disadvantage in that it requires firewood, charcoal and other fuels are used to boil water. The burning of fossil fuels has been linked to air pollution, ozone damage, deforestation, soil erosion, and flooding. Many families gather wood or other fossil fuels because they cannot afford to purchase them. It can take 6-8 hours or more for women or children to gather enough fuel to cook the daily meal and boil the water.
Chlorination, ultra-violet disinfection, and the use of a properly constructed, properly maintained well are other ways of providing clean water that may be more appropriate, particularly if a large amount of water is needed but are however very expensive methods which leaves the harnessing of energy from the sun and wind as the proffered solution for disinfecting water. As always, the selection of the right system should be based on local condition.
IDEA GENERATION STAGES
1. My initial idea was to entirely use solar energy for pasteurizing the water. However solar systems have the following disadvantages:
• Requires sunny weather
• Cannot operate in freezing conditions
This means the community will only access clean drinking water in certain seasons,months and days in a year which keeps them at risk of drinking contaminated water.
2. On noting these limitations of solar,the other idea is to use install wind turbines,which generate electrical energy which is then used for heat treatment of the water.However,this solution also has its limitations as it will only provide solutions on windy days,again leaving people at risk of having to drink contaminated water.
3. The above limitations led to the third proposed solution which uses a hybrid system of both Wind and solar energy to generate electricity which in turn is used for heat treatment of water.This system will however have limitations if on a particular day,it is not sunny at the same not windy.
4. On combining these ideas,i came up with a solution which intergrates Solar PV,Wind ,a battery storage and a storage tank.The battery serves to as a backup when there is not enough sunshine or wind to generate electricity.This is achieved by storing any excess energy during the time of both electricity generation and water pasteurization.The solution is described below:
DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED SOLUTION.
The system will have both the solar PV and Wind PV system generating electricity which is used for heat treatment of the water.The battery will store anyu excess energy for future use ,in case both the solar and wind system fail to provide the elecectrical energy.The pasteurizing unit will haveelemnts connected to the electrical system to provide be the heat.The diagram below shows the proposed system.Actual engineering detail has not been included so as to explain how the system operates,but gives a simple description of the system.