Purification

Filtration and adsorption for water purification

Problem: Water pollution is a major challenge throughout the world. The challenge of water in Africa is linked to health, power, energy and the economy. The purification of water might help minimize the above mentioned challenges, giving us a second chance to build a better economy. Few people in the continent have little of no access to purified water and thus rely on the wells and dams for freshwater for domestic use. The use of un-purified water exposes people to a lot of health issues, as for farmers, they experience challenges associated with the growth and production of their crops. Thus materials for massive treatment are required in this case for everyone to have access to clean and safe water.

 

Solution: Membranes and environmentally friendly chemicals may be used to purify water, targeting all contaminants in water such as microorganisms, organic pollutants and inorganic pollutants. The materials: Ag/TiO2/MCM-41 [1] and PES/Ag/TiO2/MCM-41 [2] may be used for water purification. Material [1] is a powder and thus will be deposited in ground water for the adsorption and removal of all contaminants including toxic microorganisms, organic pollutants (dyes, pesticides etc.) and inorganic pollutants (heavy metals, of interest). Material 2 is a membrane and will be used for the purification of water before released to the receiving watercourses from the industries and mines. All these materials incorporate the energy of the sun for water purification, through titanium dioxide for photocatalysis. The selected materials are of interest since they are environmentally friendly, commercially available, hydrothermally and mechanically stable, cheap, have anti-fouling and anti-microbial activities, and stable against corrosion. The future of pure, clean and safe water for all lies with these materials. Africans working together for a better tomorrow for Africa.

 

Targeted pollutants: organic, inorganic and toxic microorganisms

 

Application 1: The first material will be deposited in ground water (wells, ponds, dams etc.). Since we know that other areas only rely on these points for fresh water..., upon sedimentation it will thereafter adsorb and remove contaminants in water (This is a good idea if the catalyst is not to be recovered). Considering the fact of recovering the catalyst, big tanks which have pipes connected to the dams and ponds will be introduced..and the materials will be deposited in the tank and upon emptying of the tank the catalyst may be recovered. to ensure maximum purification, the second material will be placed at the taps to filter remaining contaminants.

 

Application 2: The second material is targeted for application in the main sources of pollution (industries, mines etc). They may be applied independently for the filtration of water to remove pollutants before release to the receiving watercources, or we may have a system where there water first passes through a big tank which contains material 1 (for degradation of dyes since it requires time, maybe 12 hours) then pass through material 2 (membrane) which will filter any remaining carcinogenic contaminants. Both materials are suitable for commercial use, thus massive purification

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Idea No. 442