As an Agricultural resource rich continent, most African countries rely on mining, farming and energy production for their socio-economic growth sustainability. Mechanisms involved in carrying this industrial activities results and high concentrations of water pollutants forming water is known as Acid mine drainage. The water containing heavy metals , low pH, high Fe and Sulfates contents enters groundwater through rain, erosion, etc. Mining , energy production, Farming are anthropogenic that cannot be avoided due to their socio-economic impact. Water pollution by this anthropogenic applications is almost inevitable. Due to health hazards of polluted water we are compelled to rely on treating polluted water than preventing water pollution. if contaminated water is used continuously it may result in adverse diseases extending from cancer, heart failure, neurological defects, and ultimately life termination.
Many methods have being employed to remedy the polluted water, using different hundreds of material and processes.
Material needed for my idea.
Zeolites, Silver, Zinc or Titanium particles (macro or nano particles depending on the scale, water source and filter to be used), Filter, tanks, bottles, Aluminium foil. cheap spec-like sensor.
Purpose and significance of each material
Zeolites - They are aluminosilicates (clay-sand structures) which offer water purification processes such as adsorption and iron exchange. Main advantage is that although they can generally reduce water contaminants by binding them to functional groups, the zeolites can also be synthesized and/ functionalized to suit purification of water by targeting the specific pollutants.
Functional groups (e.g. OH, CHO, CO2, Al, Tn, etc etc,) will be needed to aid removal of poisonous heavy metal ( e.g. U, Th, Hg, CN , As) known not to be selectively removed by natural or synthesized zeolites and to avoid competing effect.
Silver (Ag), Zinc (Zn) and (Titanium) Tn.
This are known to destroy microbial cell and terminate their reproduction, consequently life. Advantage is that they can be applied as oxides or nano particles of which offers flexibility to apply the method that best suit the geochemical water composition. In addition the Nano particles also serves as an effective adsorbent for a variety of pollutants (organic, inorganic, microbial and macro objects).
Kettles, Bottles, Pipes, Manganese-stainless steel and Tank.
Kettles will help in cases of agency for purer water, Bottles will help as storage water containers for scholars, tourist, soldiers, and hunters and households. Pumps for drinking and supply of water from tanks and dams (in case of farmers), Sun to allow electrons to pass through the colorless bottles so as to initiate oxidation of the Ag/Tn oxides or nano-particles. Black bottles to absorb the heat (solar energy) from the sun and allow electrochemical processes. Tank will be needed to store bulk polluted or rain harvested water to be cleaned.
Filter will be included for the purpose of preventing corpse microbes and other micro pollutants that may have escaped the cleaning processes or formed in tank due to extended water storage inside them. Coating agent is required to avoid the leaching of the nano particles involved especially because the studies have shown that nano particles have a tendency of passing through filters and accumulate in human body but there's no evidence of the human healthy harm resulting from nano particles, the reason being either, because the growth usage of this material is to fast to analyse its negative impact or because the material do not have any impact even if it accumulates. The manganese stainless steel will be used by farmers as first mode of preventing large objects from entering the pipes providing water to their tanks and dams.
Design : Tanks.
The tank will have an opening from top, this opening will serve as main hole for water entering the tank, the ball-shaped zeolited will be introduced into the tank and the water will be allowed to settle atleast 30 minutes before use ( kinetic studies recommends this contact time, esp for metals). The Ag, Zn, or Tn particles will be introduced inside the tank. the tank shall have a tap opening at the bottom to allow filtration by the filter adjusted just before the tap connection point. this is a 5 in one idea. it incorporates, ion- exchange, adsorption, sedimentation, electrochemistry (microbial disinfection), and filtration.
Design for bottles :
The bottle will be divided into three segments of which each will serve a dual purpose.
1. The lid. the lid will serve as part that comprises of the hole necessary for drinking and the inner-outside part of the lid will be made of the filter.
2. The body/middle section. this will be the main water storage part and it's inner part will be attached with the Nano particles or oxide depending on the filter and water geochemical chemistry knowledge. this bottle scan be from 2 l to around 30 L and solar energy will utilize this colorless or black portion of the bottles.
3. The bottom part : will be composed of the zeolites materials.
Kettle design and farm water pumps design
The methods will not differ much in the kettle design to that of the tank whereas in pump design the zeolites will be in pumps leading to the water reservoir to allow cleaning with reference to disctretisation and the Ag and Tn will be in the storage dam, as well as the filter. some zeolites can still be in the dam, but all this should be presented by the use of the stainless steel at the water entrance site of the pump connections.
how is the idea new and what other benefits does it offer:
The systems incorporates 1). 5 completely different water purification mechanisms in one. 2). The use of nano particles , solar energy, zeolites and filter in one system is new as well. 3). zeolites binds readily to metals, hence the bottles can be recycled, trade in or exchanged for money. 4). bottles that can be screwed above and below means when one part if inefficient, only that part can be replaced. 6). when money is not a problem the models can be adjusted to allow automated spectrophometer water purity analysis prior and after cleaning the water. 7). The method is applicable for any form of water contaminants. 8). zeolites can be functionalized with nanoparticles and be placed in a bag-like cloth at the entrace of the bottles, where it can perform all the 5 processes as one ball-shaped-bio-filter. 9).The systems do not require any skill related knowledge to apply, the people just need to know when to trade in or replace the material. All the material are readily (some naturally) available at low cost.
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