My idea involves tapping of spring water at catchment zones,storing at constructed underground storage systems and delivering as reticulated water via pipes as opposed to the conventional means of treating water at the third or fourth river stages.
BACKGROUND OF INFORMATION.
Less than 3% of planet water exists as fresh water and not all of it is accessible for consumption.almost all of available fresh water exists as groundwater described as subterranean water that emerges to feed streams,reservoirs,wetlands etc and maintains the critical cycle flow.research has indicated that groundwater provides 25%-40% of all earths drinking water and only a small % exists as surface water which in the current state is contaminated.
The method involves creation of water points at high altitude areas and then do simple quick sand filtration to remove embedded particles as the water is not bacteriologic ally contaminated,construct storage reservoirs as shown in the diagrams and then supply as reticulated water as normal.
The gist behind this idea is to compare the costs involved in only tapping water,creating underground reservoirs and supplying to the cost of constructing a treatment plant that involves processes of coagulation,flocculation,sedimentation,filtration and disinfection and then supplying not forgetting availability of heavy mineral metal we unknowingly consume like zinc and other pesticide chemicals that the treatment process doesn't eliminate.
spring water is considered the most palatable water for consumption since it is not susceptible to pathogen contamination and therefore no need to disinfect although a residual amount would be necessary to cater for pipe bursts,connection and reconnection.
When discharging waste water into the river stream we depend on the natural purification abilities of the river to restore the BOD(biochemical oxygen demand) and this varies from river to river depending on the extent of pollution considering the fact that the world population is rising fast as well as industries,agricultural activities,animals etc and therefore the treatment process is never absolute and hence day by day chronic illnesses are rising steadily.