The scarcity of water resources in Egypt and Africa represents the most formidable challenge for the pursuit of our ambitions for development as the available per capita water share is dropping below the threshold of water poverty. One of the major directions that Egypt needs to pursue is to work on developing additional resources, such as desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater. Because desalination of seawater is still a high-cost option and the energy requirements represent a limiting factor, other options are urgently needed. This study proposes to establish, monitor, and evaluate a prototype of an integrated system of using photovoltaic solar energy to desalinate brackish groundwater via high recovery Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination unit and utilize the output pure concentrated brine (reject) in energy recovery system utilizing hydro-turbine unit and then re-using electrical energy in other purposes, thereby enhancing the value of each cubic meter of water. The location has an existing groundwater pumping wells that produces brackish groundwater with a salinity of about 1700 to 2500 part per million (ppm). A photovoltaic solar cell will be used to provide energy to operate a high recovery RO based desalination unit (96% recovery). The resulting desalinated water will be used for both drinking water and irrigation purposes of different high cash crops. The reject water of the desalination process will be used to irrigate crops baring salinity. Once established, this integrated system will be monitored and the monitoring data will be analyzed to evaluate the system components.
An Example is a Desalination RO unit which was implemented in Beer Abou Kalam – El-Toor –South Sinai Governate in the instructive farm